The book is an academic attempt to fill the gap of literature on the contemporary peasant society of Nepal which is undergoing rapid transformations due to the penetration of global capitalism-a function of the adoption of neoliberal economic development model by Nepal after the democratic resurgence in 1990 A.D under the dictates of multilateral development agencies of which Nepal has been a member for long. Equally important is the genesis of an institutional effort between an academic institution and a civil society organization for the “production of knowledge” on ‘peasants’, ‘peasant economy’ and ‘peasants’ rights’ in the context of Nepal and South Asia. This book has been the outcome of the contributions of eight scholars working in the disciplines of anthropology, sociology and agricultural sciences. The book contains eight chapters on peasant studies. More specifically, Dr. Suresh Dhakal has analytically discussed about the “peasants” as “anthropological categories” and “ethnographic subjects”. Dr. David Seddon has presented his historical analysis on the resistance, rebellion, revolt and revolution through the analysis of peasant movements and other forms of rural unrest in Nepal. Dr. Janak Rai has presented the critical analysis on the landlord state, Adivasi people, and the escape agriculture in the eastern Tarai of Nepal with the discussion of the transformation of Dhimals into farming community. Mr. Jagat Basnet has furnished a critical discussion on the marginalization of the tenants in Nepal with the lens of political economy. Ms. Yamuna Ghale presents an analysis on the peasantry and state-people relations in food security governance by exploring the linkages from gender perspective. Dr. Madhu Giri has presented an analytical discussion on the changing labour regimes of the Musahar peasants from the Tarai of Nepal. Interestingly, Dr. Kapil Babu Dahal has presented the discourses on the transformation of the peasantry through the adoption of life history approach. Dr. Laya Prasad Uprety has presented the analytical discussion on the peasants’ land rights with a perspective of an engaged anthropologist. Thus, this edited volume stands as a comprehensive reader on ‘peasants’ and ‘peasantry’ in contemporary Nepal.